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By Ahmed Kamran Chapter Four: The Road to Pakistan – (Continued) Formation of the Communist Party of Pakistan The Communist Party of Pakistan (CPP) was formally established in the Second Congress of the Communist Party of India (CPI) held in February-March 1948 in Calcutta It was in line...

By Ahmed Kamran Chapter Four: The Road to Pakistan – (Continued) Political Awakening Like many other riverine societies, the political and economic life of Sindh essentially revolved around the only river flowing through its lands – the mighty Indus. Unlike Punjab with its multiple rivers and located inside...

By Ahmed Kamran Chapter Four: The Road to Pakistan – (Continued) Sindh – Developing a Rural-Urban Divide In early 1840s, the British had finally conquered Sindh to clear the way for their undisturbed approach for military expeditions to Afghanistan and Iran via Balochistan for countering the threat of...

By Ahmed Kamran Chapter Four: The Road to Pakistan – (Continued) Balochistan – A Tribal Rebellion Among Muslim majority areas of British India and the princely states inside Pakistani territory, Balochistan occupied a unique position. It was neither a wholly British Indian province nor a subordinate princely state...

By Ahmed Kamran Chapter Four: The Road to Pakistan – (Continued) A Complex Knot Indeed, for CPI it was highly complex and difficult situation. As soon as it was visible that the scepter of the foreign rule over Indian political horizon will not last for long, the ‘national...

By Ahmed Kamran Chapter Four: The Road to Pakistan – (Continued) Punjab – The Main Battleground Owing to its large fertile irrigated lands, majority Muslim population and economic strength, Punjab was going to be the principal theater for Muslim League’s battle with Congress. In its strategic importance for...

By Ahmed Kamran Chapter Four: The Road to Pakistan – (Continued) Pakistan Movement As we noted earlier in Chapter 3, the Indian Muslims separate political consciousness evolved in early 20th century during their struggle for obtaining administrative autonomy in East Bengal and minority protective rights in Hindu majority...

By Ahmed Kamran Chapter Four: The Road to Pakistan - (Continued) Kirti Communists in Punjab After the periods of significant unrests of Ghadar Party (1914-1916), Jallianwala Bagh (1919) and Babbar Akali Jatthas (1920-1925) in Punjab, a monthly Kirti (Worker) journal was published by Santok Singh from Amritsar in...

By Ahmed Kamran Chapter Four: The Road to Pakistan The areas now forming today’s Pakistan i.e. the western wing of the country at the time of its establishment in 1947 had a long and chequered history. For a long time, this region remained the centre stage and...

By Ahmed Kamran Chapter Three: The Rise and Fall of Indian Communists (1933-1951) – (Continued) Stalin’s Advice In the party, however, a uniformity of ideas and a broad consensus on policy matters was still a far cry. Strong disagreements persisted along fractured lines in the party. The party organization in...