Development / 12.01.2009

So: Is Singapore a successful city or not? Depends on how you look at it, doesn’t it? If you think about it you will realize that the design (physical and otherwise) of all cities reflects the preferences of their elites and other elites decide what criteria are to be used to define success. When you alter the criteria, you can reach somewhat different conclusions. Therefore, in any situation we have to ask ourselves: Whose preferences are we looking at and whose criteria for evaluation are we considering? The preferences of ordinary citizens do not enter into the plans that shape the design and nature of cities and the feelings of ordinary citizens do not enter into the calculations regarding the evaluation of their success. You can read all the histories you want and you will reach the same conclusion. Read how Robert Moses (who said “if the ends don’t justify...